The transversely-heated graphite tube, is used on the PerkinElmer models AAnalyst 600/800, 4100ZL, 4110ZL, 5100ZL and the SIMAA 6000, Zeeman Furnaces includes an integrated L'vov-type platform. This advanced design ensures even heating over the entire length of the tube. The exceptionally uniform temperature distribution obtained with transverse heating significantly reduces or eliminates condensation of the sample matrix components and "memory" effects and improves the atomization efficiency for refractory elements. For improved characteristic mass with volatile and medium refractory elements such as Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se, and Tl, the THGA graphite tubes with end caps are recommended. Additional benefits of these tubes include: Improved detection limits for volatile and medium refractory elements and Faster drying for complex matrices due to enlarged dosing hole. THGA graphite tubes with end caps are not recommended for refractory elements such as V or for Ba.