Electrodes consist of different materials (very frequent: platinum, calomel or hydrogene electrodes) and are hence applicable multi-purposely: to determine the pH value, the so-called single-rod measuring cells are used. Yet, the standard hydrogene electrode serves as reference electrode determining the standard potential of redox pairs. Most frequent are the solid state electrodes containing of a metal and its dilution. Yet, also liquid electrodes such as quicksilver electrodes are possible.
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Generally speaking, electrodes are electron conductors which absorb or deliver those from a medium or to it (an electrolyt solution). They always have a positive pole (anode) and a negative Pole (cathode), between them electrodes are flowing. Hence, it comes to an electrochemical transformation.